spring cloud系列笔记-04 Hystrix

简介

在微服务架构中,根据业务来拆分成一个个的服务,服务与服务之间可以相互调用(RPC),在Spring Cloud可以用RestTemplate+Ribbon和Feign来调用。为了保证其高可用,单个服务通常会集群部署。由于网络原因或者自身的原因,服务并不能保证100%可用,如果单个服务出现问题,调用这个服务就会出现线程阻塞,此时若有大量的请求涌入,Servlet容器的线程资源会被消耗完毕,导致服务瘫痪。服务与服务之间的依赖性,故障会传播,会对整个微服务系统造成灾难性的严重后果,这就是服务故障的“雪崩”效应。

为了解决这个问题,业界提出了断路器模型。

在ribbon使用熔断器

改造service-ribbon代码

  1. pom.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <parent>
        <artifactId>learncloud</artifactId>
        <groupId>tk.amrom</groupId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    </parent>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <artifactId>service-ribbon</artifactId>

    <properties>
        <java.version>1.8</java.version>
        <spring-cloud.version>Hoxton.SR1</spring-cloud.version>
    </properties>

    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-netflix-ribbon</artifactId>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-netflix-eureka-server</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-netflix-hystrix</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-netflix-hystrix-dashboard</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-actuator</artifactId>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
            <scope>test</scope>
            <exclusions>
                <exclusion>
                    <groupId>org.junit.vintage</groupId>
                    <artifactId>junit-vintage-engine</artifactId>
                </exclusion>
            </exclusions>
        </dependency>

    </dependencies>

    <dependencyManagement>
        <dependencies>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId>
                <version>${spring-cloud.version}</version>
                <type>pom</type>
                <scope>import</scope>
            </dependency>
        </dependencies>
    </dependencyManagement>

    <build>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>

</project>
  1. application.yml
eureka:
  client:
    service-url:
      defaultZone: http://localhost:8761/eureka/
  instance:
    prefer-ip-address: true
    instance-id: ${spring.cloud.client.ip-address}:${server.port}
server:
  port: 8764
spring:
  application:
    name: service-ribbon
hystrix:
  dashboard:
    enable-ignore-connection-close-header: true
  metrics:
    polling-interval-ms: 200
management:
  endpoints:
    web:
      exposure:
        include: hystrix.stream
  1. RibbonApplication.java
@EnableEurekaClient
@SpringBootApplication
@EnableHystrix
@EnableHystrixDashboard
public class RibbonApplication {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(RibbonApplication.class, args);
    }

    @Bean
    @LoadBalanced
    RestTemplate restTemplate(){
        return new RestTemplate();
    }


    @Bean
    public ServletRegistrationBean hystrixMetricsStreamServlet() {
        ServletRegistrationBean registration = new ServletRegistrationBean(new HystrixMetricsStreamServlet());
        registration.addUrlMappings("/hystrix.stream");
        return registration;
    }
}
  1. HelloService.java
@Service
public class HelloService {
    @Autowired
    RestTemplate restTemplate;

    @HystrixCommand(fallbackMethod = "hiError")
    public String hiService(String name){
        return restTemplate.getForObject("http://SERVICE-HI/hi?name=" + name,String.class);
    }

    public String hiError(String name){
        return "hi,"+name+",sorry,error!";
    }
}

搭建好之后,在服务不可用的情况下,会调用hiErrod处理请求,避免服务宕机引起的阻塞。

访问localhost:8764/actuator/hystrix.stream可以查看熔断器监控面板

在feign使用熔断器

注意feign是内置熔断器,并且dashboard的地址应该填localhost:8765/hystrix.stream,ribbon是localhost:8765/actuator/hystrix.stream

  1. pom.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <parent>
        <artifactId>learncloud</artifactId>
        <groupId>tk.amrom</groupId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    </parent>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <artifactId>service-feign</artifactId>
    <properties>
        <java.version>1.8</java.version>
        <spring-cloud.version>Hoxton.SR1</spring-cloud.version>
    </properties>

    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-netflix-eureka-server</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-openfeign</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-netflix-hystrix</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-netflix-hystrix-dashboard</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-actuator</artifactId>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
            <scope>test</scope>
            <exclusions>
                <exclusion>
                    <groupId>org.junit.vintage</groupId>
                    <artifactId>junit-vintage-engine</artifactId>
                </exclusion>
            </exclusions>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>

    <dependencyManagement>
        <dependencies>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId>
                <version>${spring-cloud.version}</version>
                <type>pom</type>
                <scope>import</scope>
            </dependency>
        </dependencies>
    </dependencyManagement>

    <build>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>

</project>
  1. ServiceFeignApplication.java
@EnableEurekaClient
@SpringBootApplication
@EnableFeignClients
@EnableHystrixDashboard
public class ServiceFeignApplication {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(ServiceFeignApplication.class, args);
    }

    @Bean
    public ServletRegistrationBean hystrixMetricsStreamServlet() {
        ServletRegistrationBean registration = new ServletRegistrationBean(new HystrixMetricsStreamServlet());
        registration.addUrlMappings("/hystrix.stream");
        return registration;
    }
}
  1. SchedualServiceHi.java
@FeignClient(value = "service-HI",fallback = SchedualServiceHiHystric.class)
public interface SchedualServiceHi {
    @RequestMapping(value = "/hi")
    public String sayHiFromClientOne(@RequestParam(value = "name") String name);
}
  1. SchedualServiceHiHystric.java
@Component
public class SchedualServiceHiHystric implements SchedualServiceHi {
    @Override
    public String sayHiFromClientOne(String name) {
        return "sorry" + name;
    }
}

feign以接口实现类的方式指定异常情况的处理方法。